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A muzzleloader is a firearm that involves a loose propellant such as gunpowder and a projectile being loaded from the muzzle of the gun (as opposed to a breech-loading firearm where the cartridge is loaded into the rear of the firearm). Muzzleloaders work like a canon. The loose propellant is first loaded into the firearm, followed by a projectile and a compacting element. Once the propellant is ignited, it creates pressure which propels the projectile (usually a lead ball, a Minie ball or a sabot) out of the barrel. In order to improve the accuracy, muzzleloaders are swabbed after every couple of shots to get rid of any residue that may interfere with the accuracy.

According to Popular Mechanics, the muzzleloading rifle is the oldest firearm in existence. Created by artist, gunsmith and inventor Marin le Bourgeois for King Louis XIII, the first muzzleloader was created in 1610 (the flintlock) and was so popular that it was the main firearm of European armies until 1840. In the early 1700s, an updated version of the muzzleloading rifle called the Kentucky Rifle was used in the American Revolution and the War of 1812. Reverend Alexander Forsyth created the first percussion ignition in 1807 which was faster than the flintlock and kept the firing powder inside the gun. In 1985, Thompson/Center created the first inline muzzleloader which improved the former model by increasing the bullet speed and efficiency.

There are three main types of muzzleloaders: historic replicas, replica hunters and in-line. Historic replicas work and look exactly like the first flintlock muzzleloaders that came into existence. They are most popular to those who are interested in history and Civil War re-enactments. Replica hunters add onto the historic replicas with modern elements such as adjustable sights, improvements to the trigger and lock design and do not always use round balls like historic replicas. In-line muzzleloaders look similar to breech-loading rifles and use sabots that use undersized projectiles which are enclosed in a plastic sleeve. Three types of propellants are used for muzzleloaders: black powder, Pyrodex and sulfur-free propellants. CVA, a prominent American manufacturer of muzzleloaders, introduced the Electra which is an electronic-ignition muzzleloader.

Due to the maintenance and operation of a muzzleloader, muzzleloaders are primarily used for hunting, target shooting and historical re-enactment. Although they are not commonly used for self-defense, law enforcement and military, muzzleloaders are still powerful guns that provide good accuracy over a long range.   

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